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Data Persistence and Indexing

Similar to all LSMT-like storage engines, data in MemTables is persisted to durable storage, for example, the local disk file system or object storage service. GreptimeDB adopts Apache Parquet as its persistent file format.

SST File Format

Parquet is an open source columnar format that provides fast data querying and has already been adopted by many projects, such as Delta Lake.

Parquet has a hierarchical structure like "row groups-columns-data pages". Data in a Parquet file is horizontally partitioned into row groups, in which all values of the same column are stored together to form a data page. Data page is the minimal storage unit. This structure greatly improves performance.

First, clustering data by column makes file scanning more efficient, especially when only a few columns are queried, which is very common in analytical systems.

Second, data of the same column tends to be homogeneous which helps with compression when apply techniques like dictionary and Run-Length Encoding (RLE).

Parquet file format

Data Persistence

When the size of data buffered in MemTable reaches a threshold, the MemTable will be flushed to a SST file.

Indexing Data in SST Files

Apache Parquet file format provides inherent statistics in headers of column chunks and data pages, which are used for pruning and skipping.

Column chunk header

For example, in the above Parquet file, if you want to filter rows where name = Emily, you can easily skip row group 0 because the max value for name field is Charlie. This statistical information reduces IO operations.

Besides Parquet's built-in statistics, our team is working on supporting a separate index file that utilizes some time-series specific indexing techniques to improve scanning performance.

Unified Data Access Layer: OpenDAL

GreptimeDB uses OpenDAL to provide a unified data access layer, thus, the storage engine does not need to interact with different storage APIs, and data can be migrated to cloud-based storage like AWS S3 seamlessly.